Cardiac Tissue Markers




Adrenomedullin

·         a regulated modulator of neonatal cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro. PMID: 11470465


ALCAM (CD166)

·         a Surface Marker for Early Murine Cardiomyocytes. PMID: 17409743


alpha-Actinin

·         an actin-binding protein that plays a key role in the formation and maintenance of Z-lines, during the T. cruzi-cardiomyocyte interaction in vitro. Immunolocalization of alpha-actinin in control cardiomyocytes demonstrated a typical periodicity in the Z line of cardiac myofibrils, as well as its distribution at focal adhesion sites and along the cell-cell junctions. PMID: 16650336


Annexin 5

·         in vivo as in vitro annexin A5 might be involved in the regulation of early apoptotic events during cardiac pathological situations. PMID: 16501019

·         Western blot analysis shows that annexin V is abundantly present in the heart. Using isolated myocytes and cultured cardiac endothelial and fibroblast-like cells, it is demonstrated that the localization of Annexin V is confined to non-myocytes. PMID: 1480159


Annexin 6

·         one of a widely expressed family of calcium-binding proteins found in most mammalian tissues, including the heart, is a negative inotropic factor in the regulation of cardiomyocyte mechanics. PMID: 11919174PMID: 8780208


ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide)

·         a sensitive cardiomyocyte marker of ventricular hypertrophy. PMID: 17275806

·         through its guanylyl cyclase-A (GC-A) receptor, not only is critically involved in the endocrine regulation of arterial blood pressure but also locally moderates cardiomyocyte growth. PMID: 16216978

·         ANF and BNP expression is a marker of cardiomyocyte differentiation, and is regulated spatially, developmentally and hormonallyPMID: 15837526


bFGF

·         plays a role in cardiomyocyte differentiation during early stages of development. PMID: 7898073


BNP (brain natriuretic peptides)

·         a marker of cardiomyocyte differentiation, and is regulated spatially, developmentally and hormonallyPMID: 15837526

·         cardiomyocyte-specific peptide hormones. PMID: 15913645

·         a cardiac hormone constitutively expressed in the adult heart. PMID: 12067842


Cardiac troponin I (cTnI)

·         a cardiomyocyte specific marker. PMID: 16382259PMID: 15579650PMID: 12878946

·         a key regulatory protein in cardiac muscle contraction and relaxation. PMID: 15769444

·         Measurement of plasma cardiac troponin I concentration ([cTnI]) is a sensitive and specific means for detecting myocardial damage in many mammalian species. PMID: 12322706

·         has proven to be a highly specific and sensitive marker for myocardial cellular damage in many mammalian species. PMID: 11596740

·         highly sensitive and specific for detecting myocardial damage even in the presence of skeletal muscle injury. PMID: 10190525

·         a new highly specific diagnostic marker of cardiomyocyte damage, is a reliable marker of cardiac ischemia during heart operations under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). PMID: 9814799


Cardiac troponin-T (cTnT)

·         cardiac-specific protein. PMID: 16831561

·         a specific marker of cardiomyocytes. PMID: 16730572

·         one prominent substrate through which protein kinase C (PKC) exerts its effect on cardiomyocyte function. PMID: 12832403

·         a cardiac-specific marker for necrotic damage. PMID: 12183413

·         a highly sensitive and specific serum marker of irreversible cardiomyocyte injury. PMID: 10519973PMID: 10190525

·         a recently developed serological marker used as a sensitive diagnostic tool for early myocardial damage in 'at risk' human patients. PMID: 7719731


CARP (cardiac adriamycin-responsive protein)

·         a nuclear modulator of gene expression in cardiac progenitor cells and cardiomyocytes.PMID: 9278441


Caveolin-2

·         caveolin-2 and caveolin-3 are detected at low levels in ventricular myocardium and increase dramatically with age or when neonatal cardiomyocytes are placed in culture.PMID: 12649076


Caveolin-3

·         cardiomyocyte-specific marker. PMID: 16397145

·         a major constituent of cardiac caveolae, has been suggested to interact with several signaling molecules. PMID: 15725944

·         a structural component of cardiac caveolae, is associated with cellular signaling. PMID: 12847114


CHAMP

·         expressed specifically in embryonic and postnatal cardiomyocytes. PMID: 11397016


CNP (C-type natriuretic peptide)

·         recently found to play a cardioprotective role in preventing myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and improving cardiac remodelling after myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. PMID: 17407830


Connexin-43

·         localized at left ventricular (LV) gap junctions and in cardiomyocyte mitochondria. PMID: 17142336PMID: 16100048PMID: 12373152
the constitutive protein for the formation of cardiac gap junctions and therefore essential for cell-cell coupling and normal cardiac function. PMID: 16537100

·         localized at cardiomyocyte mitochondria and that ischemic preconditioning (IP) enhances such mitochondrial localization. PMID: 15919068

·         main constituent of cardiomyocyte gap junctions. PMID: 12619863


Desmin

·         the major muscle-specific intermediate filament (IF) protein, is essential for mitochondrial behavior and function and maintenance of healthy muscle. PMID: 15733906

·         protein marker of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. PMID: 15699919

·         the muscle-specific member of the intermediate filament gene family, display defects in all muscle types and particularly in the myocardium. PMID: 14734054PMID: 9501201

·         the muscle-specific member of the intermediate filament family of cytoskeletal proteins, expressed both in striated and smooth muscle tissues. PMID: 10591032


dHAND

·         early cardiomyocyte gene. PMID: 11437454PMID: 10964476

·         essential for heart development and extra embryonic structures, is thought to regulate cardiomyocyte-specific gene expression through combinatorial interactions with other cardiac-restricted transcription factors such as GATA4 and NKX2.5. PMID: 15486975


eHAND

·         cardiomyocyte-specific transcription factor. PMID: 12163362PMID: 16433623


GATA-4

·         cardiac marker gene. PMID: 16487072

·         cardiomyocyte-specific transcription factor. PMID: 16433623

·         a survival factor for differentiated, postnatal cardiomyocytes and an upstream activator of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-X. PMID: 15100413

·         a key regulator of cardiac genes, is a nuclear mediator of RhoA signaling and is involved in the control of sarcomere assembly in cardiomyocytes. PMID: 11641276

·         involved in cardiomyocyte differentiation. PMID: 11418590

·         a cardiac-specific member of the GATA family of zinc finger transcription factors. PMID: 9199365

·         a critical regulator of cardiac gene expression where it controls embryonic development, cardiomyocyte differentiation, and stress responsiveness of the adult heart. PMID: 16514068


GATA-6

·         expressed in presumptive cardiac mesoderm before gastrulation, proper maturation of cardiac mesoderm requires GATA-6, which functions to maintain BMP-4 and Nkx2 expression. PMID: 12912923


H-FABP

·         a cytosolic protein that is released rapidly from the cardiomyocyte in response to myocardial injury. PMID: 16880323

·         released into the circulation when the myocardium is injured, and H-FABP has been recently used as a novel marker for the diagnosis of ongoing myocardial damage. PMID: 16363617PMID: 15704065

·         available as a biomarker for predicting ongoing cardiomyocyte damage in the mouse model. PMID: 16026778

·         involved in regulating cardiomyocyte growth and differentiation in mouse neonatal hearts. PMID: 15064945


Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)

·         a cardiomyocyte growth and differentiation factor. PMID: 16698918

·         may provide cardiac protection against glucose in part through a PI-3 kinase/Akt/mTOR/ p70s6k-dependent and calcineurin-independent pathway. PMID: 16135669

·         synthesized locally in the heart is known to be associated with the hypertrophic process. Cardiac-synthesized IGF-I is an initiating or early-enhancing factor for hypertrophy of LV cardiomyocytes. PMID: 14624474

·         in cardiomyocytes, the antiapoptotic effect of IGF-I requires both PI3K- and MEK1-dependent pathways leading to the activation of the transcription factor CREB, which then induces the expression of the antiapoptotic factor bcl-2. PMID: 11673351

·         can directly alleviate the hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. PMID: 11256230


MEF2C

·         is required for the efficient differentiation of cardiomyoblasts into cardiomyocytes.PMID: 17003108

·         a MADS-box transcription factor required for cardiac myogenesis and morphogenesis.PMID: 11397016


MHC (myosin heavy chain)

·         cardiac-specific gene. PMID: 16831561


MLC (myosin light chain)

·         MLC-2V is a marker of cardiomyocytesPMID: 17300799

·         MLC-2a and MLC-2v are cardiac-specific genes. PMID: 15753841

·         MLC-2v is a cardiomyocyte-specific gene. PMID: 15639472


N-cadherin

·         a useful marker for the progenitor of cardiomyocytes differentiated from mouse ES cells in serum-free condition. PMID: 17097609

·         belongs to a superfamily of calcium-dependent transmembrane adhesion proteins. It mediates adhesion in the intercalated discs at the termini of cardiomyocytes thereby serving as anchor for myofibrils at cell-cell contacts. PMID: 16228908

·         cardiomyocyte marker. PMID: 15579650


Nkx2.5 (cardiac homeobox protein)

·         cardiac marker gene. PMID: 16487072

·         cardiomyocyte-specific transcription factorPMID: 16433623

·         involved in cardiomyocyte differentiation. PMID: 11418590, PMID: 15505807

·         cardiomyocyte marker. PMID: 17300799

·         Nkx2.5(+) lineage cells possess the potential to differentiate into various cardiomyocyte cell types and that RA can modify the differentiation potential of Nkx2.5(+) cardiomyocytes at an early stage. PMID: 12594186

·         essential in cardiac development, and mutations in Csx (which encodes Nkx2-5) cause various congenital heart diseases. PMID: 11431700

·         the putative cardiomyocyte specification gene. PMID: 9986733


Oct-4

·         involved in cardiomyocyte and osteoblast differentiation. PMID: 15505807


Pnmt (Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase)

·         besides PNMT in neuronal and intrinsic cardiac cells, this enzyme is expressed also in rat cardiomyocytes, as shown by immunofluorescence in isolated cardiomyocytes, is a novelmarker of cardiomyocyte stem cells. PMID: 17175506

·         localized, not predominantly in cardiac ganglion cells, but in a wide range in atrial cardiomyocytes. PMID: 15240396

·         the final enzyme in the pathway for epinephrine biosynthesis, serves as a marker for tissues and cells producing epinephrine. PMID: 8877775


Sarcomeric alpha Actin/Actinin

·         cardiomyocyte-specific marker. PMID: 17045908, PMID: 16637898, PMID: 16433623,PMID: 15878162, PMID: 12628942


Sarcomeric Myosin

·         a marker for cardiomyocytes. PMID: 13678453, PMID: 16516919, PMID: 14578102

·         Cardiac myocyte specific protein marker. PMID: 15896309


Sarcomeric Tropomyosin

·         Expressed on cardiomyocytes purified from embryoid bodies. PMID: 12594186


Skeletal alpha-Actin

·         gene normally expressed in the fetal ventricular cardiomyocyte. PMID: 7499296



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